Stavros Katsanevas: Astroparticle Physics in Europe
The big question is what Planck will provide us: is the data compatible with inflation ? We will also soon know the number of effective neutrinos. We will soon map the dark matter sky. So this workshop came four days too early.
But we also have the LHC. Is the Higgs all there is ? Essentially, if we change a little the top and Higgs mass we can go up to the Planck scale without the need of new physics. But we have evidence for new physics from neutrinos. Neutrinos point to high scales. The question of where are these extra energy scales is open.
Astroparticle physics is thus going up and down the cosmic ladder. There are two fundamental question: are there any intermediate scales between EW and inflation ? And how do particles and fields or laws of the intermediate scales shape the genesis, evolution and destruction of cosmic structures ?
The European Astroparticle Physics Coordination (APPEC) started in 2001. ASPERA was launched and for six years gave 6MEuro funding to 19 countries with 3000 researchers and 220 MEuros consolidated funds. APPEC is a fusion with ASPERA. They managed to embed the work in a more global effort. THey made roadmaps. The first one was in 2008, pointing at dark matter and energy, neutrino mass and properties; gravitational wavers, highe neergy photons and neutrinos and UHECR. In total seven magnificent topics.
In 2011 there was an update. A prioritization was introduced, as a time ordering. They also funded all projects that had been prioritized in the roadmap with common goals for R&D. They also developed interdisciplinary connections for geophysics, underwater science, and underground science. Also built contacts with the industry for innovation.
In dark matter searches APPEC supports a program to extend the target mass of noble liquids to a few tons (e.g. DARWIN). There are 30 projects worldwide with different techniques. The leader is XENON, but in two-years time bolometers will arrive at the same sensitivity.
In neutrino physics, APPEC supports a vigorous R&D program of the liquid argon technique and beam design studies in anticipation of a critical decision in 2015. LAGUNA is being planned. Rapid progress in nu oscillation physics has established a strong scientific case for a LB neutrino programme exploring CP violation and the mass hierarchy. CERN should develop a neutrino programme to pave the way for a substantial European role in future LB.
For dark energy, the communities and agencies have converged to large sky surveys with telescopes both on ground and in space. The field has finally a clear long-term program.
For High-energy neutrino telescopes an interesting thing from the agency point of view is the joint effort for a km^3 scale detector. Also the collaboration of Pingu and Orca is important, due to their complementary nature. In cosmic ray observatories we might be seeing the GZK or in large part the exhaustion of the acceleration mechanism. AUGER submitted a proposal to distinguish muons from the EM component better.
In summary, we have seen coordination in gravitational waves and dark energy, as well as in high-energy universe observatories. In other domains more work is needed.